Document Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
Assistant Prof. in Department of English Translation, Faculty of Humanities, Tolou-e Mehr Institute of Higher Education, Qom, Iran; and PhD from University Sains Malaysia
Assistant Prof. in Department of Mystical Literature, Faculty of Language and Literature, Imam Sadiq Research Institute, Qom, Iran
SUBJECT AND OBJECTIVES: Although Jalaluddin Rumi and William Blake hail from different literary and cultural contexts, their poems bear interesting affinities. However, these affinities have not been fully addressed by scholars. This paper will examine the role of reason in the poetry of Rumi and Blake with regard to human endeavor towards pure life which is union with God. In other words, the researchers attempt to find out how it is possible to gain an in-depth understanding of the theme of reason in the poetry of Rumi and Blake through analyzing and interpreting their poems. In addition, the study tries to see what the similarities and differences between the poetry of Rumi and Blake are in a comparative manner, especially with regard to the theme of reason.
METHOD AND FINDING: The selected poems will be from Rumi’s “Masnavi” and Blake’s “Book of Urizen” and “Four Zoas”. To compare both poets’ views on reason, Totosy de Zepetnek’s approach of inclusion will be employed. This comparative study is constructed on the doctrine of perennial philosophy led by Aldous Huxley. The discussion will concentrate on two main aspects namely, partial reason and its function as a barrier to the good and pure life (Hayāt Tayyiba) as a desirable human lifestyle and union with God. The second aspect concerns universal reason and its function as a bridge to union with the Absolute Being.
CONCLUSION: Even though Rumi and Blake are originally from diverse geographical, political, social, and religious milieu, they have shared common ideas regarding the concepts of reason. Thus, a comparative study of the two literary giants will pave the way for those who are interested in finding the commonalities of Sufism and Romanticism particularly in the poetry of Rumi and Blake.
- The Holy Quran. (English Translation of the Meaning of al-Quran: The Guidance for Mankind by Farooq Malik (1997). Houston: The Institute of Islamic Knowledge)
- Abrams, Meyer Howard (1973).Natural and Supernaturalism. New York: W.W Norton & Company.
- Blake, William (1970). Auguries of Innocence. Bushey: Taurus Press.
- Blake, William (1988). The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake. New York: Random House
- Blake, William (2004). The First Book of Urizen. Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing.
- Blake, William (1963). Vala, or The Four Zoas. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Blake, William (1977). Wiliam Blake: The Complete Poems. Harmondsworth:
- Boostani, Mahdieh (2017). Rumi’s Mystical Ontology in His Poetry. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics. VoL. 3 (Issue. 3): 74-77.
- Chittick, William (1983). The Sufi Path of Love: The Spiritual Teachings of Rumi. New York: SUNY Press.
- Dehghan, Ali. Farzi, Hamidreza. and Rostam Amani Astamal (2013). Survey on the Nostalgia for “Return to Origin” in Mystical Poetry (Sanaei, Attar and Mowlavi=Rumi). Life Science Journal. Vol. 10 (Issue. 1): 398-403.
- Dehghani Firouzabadi, Mahdi. and Md Salleh bin Yapaar (2014). Evil the Cause of Separation: A Comparative Study of Jalaluddin Rumi and William Blake. Journal of Language and Vol. 5 (Issue. 2): 56-61.
- Fischer, Kevin (2017). WILLIAM BLAKE & JACOB BOEHME: Imagination, Experience & the Limitations of Reason. Temenos Academy Review 20. Ashford: Temenos Academy.
- Mohammad. and Mohammad-Reza Yousefi (2005). The Place of Reason and its Levels in Rumi's “Masnavi Ma’navi”. Journal of Philosophical-Theological Research. Vol. 6: 81-111.
- Grace, Fran (2011). Beyond Reason: The Certitude of the Mystics from Al-Hallaj to David R. Hawkins. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 1 (Issue. 13): 147-156.
- Huxley, Aldous (1945). The Perennial Philosophy. New York: Harper & Row.
- Laskar, Begum Ayesha Sultana (2012). Maulana Rumi and Kabir: A Comparative Study. Saarbrücken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
- Roy, Sumita (2003). Aldous Huxley and Indian Thought. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
- Rumi, Jalaluddin (1990). Mathnawi of Jalaluddin Translated by Reynold Nicholson. London: Gibb Memorial Trust.
- Safavi, Syed G (2010). Rumi and Mulla Sadra on Theoretical and Practical Reason. London Academy of Iranian Studies. Palermo: SIEPM, XII International Congress of Medieval Philosophy.
- Schimmel, Annemarie (1993). The Triumphal Sun. New York: State University of New York Press.
- Spurgeon, Caroline (2011). Mysticism in English Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Totosy de Zepetnek, Steven (1998). Comparative Literature: Theory, Method, Application. Amsterdam-Atlanta, GA: Rodopi.